What computer software is And Categories of computer software

Computer software is basically a program which allows the hardware components to operate effectively as well as provide very many useful services. Computer manufacturers and certain software specialist usually write software. Programs are sequence of instructions given to a computer to enable it solve a particular problem or accomplish a given assignment. Some of these programs are permanently stored in the computer. They automatically start- up the computer when it is switched on. On completion of the initial process of start-up, they will transfer control to the operating system, which is the manager of the computer resources. The rest of these programs that are external use are loaded to the memory of the system from the secondary storage medium like hard disk after the system boot-up. The loading of the operating system is automatic, hence if it is not loaded, the system cannot boot of prompt for a command.

Categories of software
This section examines the distinctions between system software and application software.
Those programs concerned with the initial control and co- ordination of all aspects of the computer system, namely the operating system; a number of other programs providing various services to users. These services include translators for any languages supported by the system and utility programs such as program editors and other aids to programming.

System software
The term system software covers the collection of programs usually supplied by the manufacturer of the computer. These programs protect the user from the enormous complexity of the computer system, and enable the computer to be  used to maximum effect by a wide variety people, many of whom  know s very little about the inner workings of computers. Without system software a modern digital computer would be virtually impossible to use.
The system software consists of the following elements

OPERATING SYSTEM
If a computer system is viewed as a set of resources comprising elements of both hardware and software, then it is the job of the collection of program known as operating system to manage these resources as effectively as possible. In so doing, the operating system acts as a buffer between the use and the complexity of the computer itself. One way of regarding the operating system is to think of it as a program which allows the user to deal with a simplified computer, but without losing any of the computational power of the machine. In this way the computer system becomes a virtual system, its enormous complexity hidden and controlled by the operating system and through which the user communicates with the real system.

The main functions of the operating system
Earlier it was stated that the function of an operating system is to manage the resources of the computer system. Generally these resources managed by operating  system are CPU, memory, Input/output Devices, backing store and files.
The above is by no means a full list of the functions of an operating system. Other functions include:
Interpretation of the command language by which operator can communicate with the operating system.
Detecting and reporting inoperative or malfunctioning peripheral
Protection of data files and programs from corruption by others
File management
Multiprogramming
Job sequencing
Peripheral control
Recovery from system failure

Some resent operating systems are: MAC, LINUX, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10, UNIX etc.

Types of operating system
Single program OS: this operating system allows only one user’s program at a time
Simple batch System : this operating system provides multiprogramming of batch program but have few facilities for multi-access
Multi-access and time sharing: this type of operating system allows multiple access to system resources and therefore share processors time to cope with numerous users
Real- time system: this operating system is used in any real time data processing technique.

SYSTEM SERVICE
Most time, a manufacturer will provide a number of programs designed specifically for program or application development. Some examples of such aids are as follows:
Language Translator
These are computer programs designed to convert high level language programs into machine code, that is, into a form directly usable by a computer. Common types of language processors are Assembler, Compiler, Interpreters.

Utility programs
As part of the system software provided with a computer system there are a number of utility programs specifically designed to aid program development and testing. These include the following.
Editors: these permit the creation and modification of source programs and data files.
Debugging Aids: debugging aids help programmers to isolate and identify the cause of bugs
File managers: these simplify and facilitate a number of operations connected with program development and maintenance such as keeping backup copies of important files; deleting, creation, merging, sorting files etc.
Without the help of such dedicated programs, operation such as these could be extremely time – consuming and consequently expensive.

Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs)
The vast majority of microcomputer users are interested merely in using a computer as a tool, without any real interest in the technical details of its operation. A typical user will probably want to run one or more common general- purpose application, organize files.
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